Bioinformatics


MSU scientists have identified how a single gene in honey bees separates the queens from the workers.
Scientists have identified how a single gene in honey bees separates the queens from the workers.

Molecular & Cell Biology


Short DNA sequences known as "PAM " (shown in yellow) enable the bacterial enzyme Cas9 to identify and degrade foreign DNA, as well as induce site-specific genetic changes in animals.
A central question has been answered regarding a protein that plays an essential role in the bacterial immune system and is fast becoming a valuable tool for genetic engineering. A team of researchers with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the University of California (UC) Berkeley have determined how the bacterial enzyme known as Cas9, guided by RNA, is able to identify and degrade foreign DNA during viral infections, as well as induce site-specific genetic changes in animal and plant cells. Through a combination of single-molecule imaging and bulk biochemical experiments, the research team has shown that the genome-editing ability of Cas9 is made possible by the presence of short DNA sequences known as "PAM," for protospacer adjacent motif.




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